The exhaust system (another name is the exhaust system, exhaust system) is designed to exhaust gases from the engine cylinders, their cooling, as well as reduce noise and toxicity.
The exhaust system includes many structural elements, including an exhaust manifold, a catalytic converter, a particulate filter (on diesel engines), a muffler and connecting pipes.
All structural elements of the exhaust system are located under the bottom of the car.
The exhaust manifold provides direct exhaust gas removal, as well as blowing the engine cylinders. The shape and dimensions of the exhaust manifold determine the nature of the oscillatory process of the exhaust gases in the exhaust system and ultimately affect the power and torque of the engine. The oscillatory process of the exhaust gases in the exhaust system must be consistent with the oscillatory process of the fuel-air mixture in the intake system.
The exhaust manifold has the largest temperature load, so it is usually made of heat-resistant cast iron. A silencer exhaust pipe is attached to the exhaust manifold.
To isolate the structural elements of the exhaust system from engine vibration, a vibration isolating clutch (common name – bellows) is used. The bellows is a flexible metal hose closed with a steel sheath.
The catalytic converter is designed to reduce the concentration of harmful substances in the exhaust gas. In everyday life, a catalytic converter is called a catalyst. Different car models differ in the design and location of the catalytic converters. On modern cars, three-way catalytic converters are used that protect against three harmful substances – unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.
A diesel particulate filter is used on diesel engines, which provides reduced soot emissions into the atmosphere with exhaust gases. In the exhaust system, the particulate filter can be combined with a catalytic converter.
In modern car exhaust systems are used in addition to other environmental systems – crankcase ventilation, exhaust gas recirculation, trapping of gasoline vapour.
An oxygen sensor is used to control the composition of the fuel-air mixture of the engine by measuring oxygen in the exhaust gases. Although an oxygen sensor is installed in the exhaust system, it is a structural element of the engine control system.
In modern control systems, two oxygen sensors are installed – one in front of the catalytic converter and the other behind it. In addition to the oxygen sensor, other input devices can be installed in the exhaust tract: exhaust gas temperature sensor, nitrogen oxide sensor.
The silencer, as the name implies, is designed to reduce noise and convert exhaust energy. The silencer consists of several parts. For the most part, the silencer includes two elements – a preliminary silencer (resonator) and the main silencer. Noise reduction in the silencer occurs due to the imposition of sound waves, multiple changes in the direction and magnitude of the exhaust gas flow, as well as their absorption.
On sports cars, as well as when tuning a car, so-called straight-through mufflers are installed, which provide an increase in engine power.
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